Saturday, August 12, 2017

The naming of Butler County, Kansas

Kansas was quick to build one-room school houses to educate its children. Butler County was the same.

Homestead claims were generally 160 acres and four families could be found in a square mile. Large families created a need for one-room schools and it was a common sight in the 1860's and 70's to see children walking barefooted or riding a horse bareback, a mile or two to school. At first, the school house walls were simple plaster, stone, or log. Later, when time and money allowed, formal structures were built and the wall were papered with wallpaper. Always, one would find hanging an American flag, a map of the United States, and a picture of the first president of the United States, George Washington, along with one of the late Prsident Abraham Lincoln.

Nowhere, would one find a picture of Andrew Pickens Butler.

The Kansas Territory was battleground for Abolitionists and slaveholders. Conflicts erupted between Free-staters and Border Ruffians, so that between 1854 and the beginning of the Civil War, Kansas Territory was known as Bleeding Kansas.

Andrew Pickens Butler, (US gov. photo)

Butler County, being in the southern regions of Kansas Territory and primarily a reserve for the Osage and Cherokee tribes avoided most of the troubles associated with Bleeding Kansas. An odd settler and his family entered the area prior to the Civil War, but it was not until after the war that real settlement took place. Chelsea was the county seat before it was moved to El Dorado.

Butler County was named for Senator Andrew Pickens Butler of South Carolina (1796 - 1857), who co-authored with Stephen A. Douglas the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854. Butler advocated on behalf of slaveholders and states rights. The passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act and the repeal of the Missouri Compromise of 1820 set the stage for Bleeding Kansas and eventually, the Civil War.

Butler is also best remembered for an event that took place in his absence. In May of 1856, Senator Charles Sumner of Massachusetts, gave a speech titled the "Crime Against Kansas", abusing Butler personally, along with Senator Douglas, and the entire state of South Carolina. The speech can be found online.

In temperatures exceeding 90 degrees, the six foot two inch Senator from Massachusettes waxed on and on, as most senate speeches of the time did. In part he called the Senator from South Carolina a Don Quixote, a deluded knight believing himself chivalrous who is in bed with a harlot called slavery. Senator Douglas, he called, a squire, Pancho to Butler's Don Quixote.

Two days later on the floor of Congress, fellow South Carolina Congressman Preston Brooks, a relative of Butler, beat Sumner on the Senate floor with a gutta-percha cane while fellow South Carolina Rep. Laurence Keitt brandished a pistol and held off other senators from coming to Sumner's aid. Sumner survived the attack but it was 3 years before he could return to the senate. Brooks was tried in the District of Columbia for the assault and convicted, then fined $300. Brooks resigned his seat in congress and re-elected by an enthusiastic South Carolina electorate who sent him canes to replace his broken and shattered one.

It was the "Bogus Legislature," of 1855, Kansas Territory's first governing body, which was given the right to name many counties on behalf of southern politicians. Thus, Butler was given its name, but also  Davis, Wise, Lykins, Douglass, Jefferson, Calhoun, Bourbon, Breckinridge. Franklin. Weller, Anderson, Dorn, McGee and Godfrey counties. Many of these names were later changed, but some remained.

Monday, April 4, 2016

Clay Center, District no. 41

A return visit to Clay Center school after an earlier one, December 2012.


Clay Center, one room school, Dist. no. 41


Clay Center in Butler County, Kansas is not much more than a place name. Its location is 210th street southeast and southeast Cole Creek road. 

You get there if you are heading east from Douglass towards Latham (10 miles), or if you are going south from Leon to Atlanta (9 miles). An old automotive building at the intersection proudly proclaims the name Clay Center. A house stands on the northwest corner and a one room schoolhouse, District No. 43, is on the southwest lot. The north branch of Rock Creek flows by wrapping around the schoolhouse and proceeding in a southwesterly direction. 

C. M. Price pre-empted the land at Clay Center after it was opened up to settlement in 1870, paying $1.25 an acre. The Kansas State Board of Agriculture Biennial Report of 1878, notes that school district no. 41 was established as early as 1874.  

Early settlers planted corn and other crops, in addition, raised cattle, horses, and mules for market. The township was organized in 1879 and a one room school was built soon after. The population of the township in 1880 was 410. 


south view


view from the west

Clay Center

1905 atlas showing Clay Township, Butler County

close up


The school is well-maintained.

Friday, April 1, 2016

Enterprise School, Hickory Township, Butler County 1893-84

Who knows why this one room school was called "Enterprise"?

My guess follows the sentiments of Vol. P. Mooney, who wrote an early history of Butler County.The settlers who came in their Prairie Schooners, had little money to their name and much hope. They were enterprising. They had to be for they had to outwit the weather, the prairie fires, and the grasshoppers. Settling the land was not an easy thing and after the crops were planted one of the first things settlers did was to build a one room school and educate their children, hoping for a better tomorrow.
Enterprise school, Hickory Twp, Butler Co., Ks.

The school was built in 1883 and here we have the winter class of 1893-94 taught by F. M. Leatherman. I feel a little sorry for Walter Seymor, the boy who is standing off to the right side of the class picture.

The earliest settlers on these Osage Trust Lands arrived in 1868 and took up claims on Hickory Creek. Hickory Township was organized in 1875. W. S. and C. W. Buskirk, acted as county surveyors. They had several children in the 1893-94 class.



District school no. 143 was located on the Dennis homestead adjacent to the Southerland property in the southeast corner of Hickory Township. Hickory Township itself is in the southeastern part of Butler County, south of Beaumont.

southeast Butler County, Kansas 1885

Mooney's History of Butler County, Kansas

Enterprise school, no. 143, Butler County, Kansas
 

Friday, December 25, 2015

Christmas on the prairie




Western Kansas is for the most part undulating prairies whose soil was formed thousands of years ago by the slow erosion from rain and wind of the Rocky Mountains to the east.

The Pawnee River flows through the area for 200 miles before it joins the larger Arkansas River. Small creeks, Buckner Creek and Saw Log Creek, in turn, feed the Pawnee, and in wet years the water is abundant. A thin line of timber forms along the banks of the river and creek, the principal variety of trees being ash, oak, sycamore, cottonwood, box-elder and hackberry. The bottom lands that can be farmed constitute about one-tenth of the prairie, the rest consists of hard limestone and the soft sand that is the result of the wind-blown erosion.

The climate is healthful, even invigorating, but it can be harsh. In wet years, the rains grow the crops and water the cattle, but in dry years, the crops fail and the cattle go thirsty.


Chistmas on the prairie
  

The following excerpt about Christmas on the prairie is by Kate Thompson Gilmore Bowen (1853-1928). It was written in December of 1925 to the Jetmore, Kansas "Republican," a newspaper still in print. The county was organized in 1879 and by 1885 had a population of 1,779. Jetmore, the county seat, can be found a bit north of Dodge City.    
Dear Republican,

...[Reading the Republican] sent me to thinking of a Christmas tree and entertainment I participated in when the settlers were all new and most of them poor. There was not an evergreen tree within a hundred miles that I knew of!

We had moved to Hodgeman Co Ks in the spring of 1885 and brought a family of five little girls. As Christmas of 1886 drew near, we realized we had brought them away from many things they had always enjoyed at that season of the year. We realized it was up to us to find the best substitute we could.

The first district school had begun that fall in the little school house - which was of sod. Our little town had a good little Sunday School every Sunday and preaching every two weeks. Mr. Reed was our superintendent and it was a union school. All the families met there to plan for a Christmas tree and entertainment. We counted our pennies and sent Mr. Will Burns to Dodge City with our money and a list of oranges, candy, green tissue paper (as near the shade of evergreen as he could find).

We chopped down a good sized hack berry tree - its top reached the ceiling- and cut the green paper in long strips half a finger length and fringed each strip as deep as possible, leaving only a plain margin to wrap around the bare limbs of the tree. We wrapped the whole tree and you, who did not see it, have no idea how pretty it looked. Popcorn was strung with needle and thread and festooned around it and oranges fastened on and dozens of little pink mosquito netting bags filled with candy and hazel nuts and a pretty red apple for each pupil (the later contributed by families who had had them sent from Nebraska) with an occasional tin horn, picture book and the little school house lighted by the biggest and best lamps the country side afforded.

I want to tell you it was a pretty sight.

We had a really fine program. One especially fine program comes to my mind, which some of you will remember called "Little Grandpa and Grandma Blackeyes". Little Jimmie Henderson and Little Effie Meyers took the parts and I can see them yet. Each with their sparkling black eyes and dressed for the part, and a little pupil stood between them to recite the piece.

In all of the county, there two cottage organs, our own and the Leeper’s. We put ours in the wagon and took it to the school house. Ella Leeper played nicely and she was our organist and the songs were the fine old Christmas hymns "Joy to the World" "Low in a Manger", and "Merry, Merry Chiming Bells", and many others that for generations have rung out in the Christmas air and cheered the hearts of God'd people.

The little school house was crowded and without even standing room. Many were there that had never seen a Christmas tree and many were carried back to their childhood and younger days in their old homes back East.

Tender memories were awakened long dormant and as we separated that night and rode home under the lovely Christmas stars that seemed to me to always shine brighter in the clear Kansas night we all felt the solemn influence of our Christmas entertainment.

Changes came to many of us before another Christmas.

My dear husband did not live to see the summer and sleeps the long slumber on the hillside of our ranch. And I and my little family had gone East and left forever the lovely rolling prairies with the beautiful sunrise and sun sets and the pure wholesome air, and those dear neighbors.

These and many many more thoughts of 39 years ago.
The original letter is available online. Kate Bowen married Jasper Clay Bowen in 1871. She was 33 at the time she wrote the letter, her oldest daughter was 14 and her youngest two. The letter was contributed to The Kansas Collection by Nancy Hampton Attey, the great granddaughter of the author.



Settlers began to arrive in Hodgeman County in 1877. With the Timber Culture Act of 1873, they were granted an additional 160 acres of land when they planted at least 40 acres of trees over a period of several years, allowing homestead claims of 320 acres. Schools always followed the settlers. The one in the following story was sod because of the absence of timber on the western prairies.

The numerous crop failures are evidence of the difficult life in Hodgeman County. The first sowing of wheat was cut short by hail. Then three good years followed with an interruption of a drought in the fall of 1878, before the failure of the spring crop in 1879. The settlers managed to get by on less than a housand milk cows with a small crop of sweet and Irish potatoes, turnips, pumpkins, squashes and melons. A summer crop of millet, broom corn, rice corn and millet succeeded in but half of the county. In the fall and spring of 1880 the wheat crop failed.

And so we are reminded, the real things in life have not changed. It is important to make the most of what we have and be happy with simple pleasures and to share those with family and friends.

Tuesday, September 15, 2015

Make the Right Choice

Catcher in the Rye, To Kill a Mockingbird, A Separate Peace, Tom Sawyer, and on and on. Everyone has their own favorite coming of age story, the one that marks the passage from childhood to adulthood. 

I suppose that I keep coming back to the Lower Fox Creek Schoolhouse because, in a way, it symbolizes a coming of age for all of us. Who, after all, doesn’t remember a time in their life when the major worry was if the homework staid dry when it rained, or what was packed for lunch in the brown paper bag. 

These were the halcyon days before the summer storms.


Lower Fox Creek Schoolhouse, Chase County, Kansas



An ancient schoolhouse, a country road, and a modern highway, all these things suggest change. Life moves on and yet we remember the past to see how far we have come. Perhaps the perspective on where we are going is best seen from the past. 

Teachers taught the basics - the three R's, reading, 'riting, and 'rithmatic, plus a little geography. From the little schoolhouse on the prairie, countless children were introduced to a world of literature and exciting possibilities. The Nature Conservancy, which operates the school, observed, that some of these children stayed to run the family farms, some moved away to conquer new worlds, and all cherished the memories of the little schoolhouse on the prairie.

The journey from child to adult is memorable. No matter whether swim in choppy waters or cool streams, there is bound to be confusion, complexity and, now and then both heartbreak and fun.







In an era of shrinking school budgets, it is nice to remember that the quality of education is determined by the quality of the teacher and the effort one student puts into learning.This is still the America where we say anyone can grow up to be president of the United States. And just looking back at the last 50 years we come up with this list:  Barack Obama, Bill Clinton, Jimmy Carter, Gerald Ford, Richard Nixon, Lyndon Johnson, Dwight Eisenhower and Harry Truman all came from humble backgrounds.

The one room school is a symbol of the choices in life we make. Robert Frost's poem The Road Not Taken comes to mind.

We two to the cool creek raced. In the distance rang a bell, and I— Quickened my pace. Two roads diverged on the hill, and I— I took the one to school, And that has made all the difference. 

This post is another update on the Lower Fox Creek Schoolhouse in Chase County, Kansas

Saturday, August 8, 2015

The soul should always stand ajar

The soul should always stand ajar,
   That if the heaven inquire,
He will not be obliged to wait,
   Or shy of troubling her.

Depart, before the host has slid
   The bolt upon the door,
To seek for the accomplished guest, —
   Her visitor no more.

Emily Dickinson

Lower Fox Creek Schoolhouse near Strong City Kansas

My thoughts on revisiting the Lower Fox Creek Schoolhouse near Strong City, Kansas.

Saturday, May 9, 2015

Return to Fox Creek School

It is early spring 2015 and three years since my last visit to the one room schoolhouse on Lower Fox Creek in Chase County.

Lower Fox Creek School, north view

The limestone school built in 1884 now sits within the Tallgrass Prairie, National Preserve in Kansas, just two miles north of Strong City on Highway 177.

Lower Fox Creek Schoolhouse, south view
The first school term began on September 1, 1884, with Dora Peer as the teacher. She earned $35 a month. A new teacher taught for the following five school years, their names: Roy Hackett, Mrs. Gus Walsh, Minnie Ford, Ada Baker, and Maude Johnston. 

Learn more by visiting the National Park Service site.